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(An excerpt from the interest session “National Standards in the Choral Rehearsal: Strategies for Implementation,” presented by Melissa Baughman during the 2014 ACDA Southwestern Division Conference)
       Implementing the National Standards into the choral rehearsal continues to be a difficult task for many high school choir directors.  In this session, I presented ideas for meeting each of the nine National Standards during a typical choral rehearsal. I compiled teaching strategies found in existing literature and shared ideas for teaching the National Standards through eight pieces of standard choral repertoire.
       Session attendees were most intrigued with ideas for teaching composition and arranging in the choral rehearsal. I presented the idea of teaching students a hymn or folk tune by rote so students could later add harmony parts, a bass ostinato and a soprano descant in small groups. Depending on the level of the singers, groups could be divided as whole sections (i.e., all altos make up a harmony part, all basses create an ostinato) or in octets with each voice part represented. Teachers in attendance at this session thought this activity could also be applied to pop tunes to further entice the students.
       The arrangement activity presented and discussed also inspired ideas for advocacy. Recordings of the students’ arrangements could be showcased at a concert or even performed live. This would allow parents, administrators and community members to see the students performing and creating music, thus increasing an awareness of what students are actually learning in choral rehearsals.
       The teachers in this session were receptive to all the ideas presented and offered many innovative strategies for incorporating the National Standards into the choral rehearsal. It is my hope they will apply these new lesson ideas and continue to think creatively about rehearsal planning.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Unaccompanied Choral Music from Latin America,” presented by Cristian Grases during the 2014 Western Division Conference)
       One of the most interesting aspects of Latin American a cappella choral music has to do with the different approaches in which composers write for the vocal ensemble. When setting religious texts, both in Latin and vernacular, we encounter examples of wonderful vocal polyphony in a Renaissance style from composers of the Colonial Period (1524-1810) such as Manuel de Sumaya and Juan Gutierrez de Padilla. Conversely, during the Contemporary Period (1900-2014), composers created sacred a cappella choral music influenced by many different musical ideas such as twentieth-century harmony, extended compositional techniques, minimalism, poly-metrics, serialism, atonalism, among many others. Some important composers are Venezuelans Alberto Grau and Cesar Alejandro Carrillo, Brazilians Heitor Villa-Lobos and Carlos Alberto Pinto Fonseca, and Argentinean Antonio Russo, among many others.
       In the case of popular music, generally accompanied by traditional instrumental groups, composers and arrangers continue to explore the a cappella sound in diverse ways: creating unique vocal combinations, using the voices to imitate instruments, reconnecting with older compositional forms such as preludes and fugues based on folk or popular tunes, or even including eurhythmics and body percussion as compositional resources. The result is a fantastic rainbow of musical colors, combinations, ideas, and creativity; that constitutes the basis for a rich and tremendously varied body of choral literature that is not well known outside the regional boundaries.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Singing in the Groove: Connecting with our Rhythmic Roots,” presented by Brian Tate during the 2014 ACDA Northwestern Division Conference)
       Rhythm is energy. When you have your singers clap a simple pattern (clap, rest, clap, rest), usually the first thing that happens is, they speed up! Why is that? Rhythm is energy. And energy wants to move! Controlling rhythm is like holding the reins on a team of horses: you need to let the energy move, but you must also be grounded and “pull back on the reins” to control the pace. Have your singers mime holding the reins, feeling the horses run, and leaning back to feel the resistance. Go back to the clapping, if it starts to rush, remind them “pull it back…”, and invite them to notice when they collectively fall into a groove. Rhythm is not about counting, it is about feeling the pulse in your body, and - like all good singing - making music with your whole body. And our voice can be used as a rhythm instrument as well as a lyric instrument.
       Clapping on 2 and 4.   In gospel and similar genres, singers are often asked to clap on 2 and 4. This can be challenging! Why? One reason is that we can erroneously think that the clap is the main beat. The strong beats - 1 and 3 - happen in the feet. Listen to a drummer - the bass drum is on 1 and 3, and snare on 2 and 4. Have your singers walk in place slowly, feeling gravity grounding them. The step has the sensation of “down”. The clap has the sensation of “up”. Clapping on 2 and 4 uplifts us!
EXCERPTS FROM MARGARET HILLIS' At Rehearsals (First published 1969) by Mary Lynn Doherty
At Rehearsals is an 18 page document written by Margaret Hillis (founder and conductor of the Chicago Symphony Chorus for almost 40 years).  Her advice on singing, score marking and diction is comprehensive, concise and highly effective.   If it was good enough for the Chicago Symphony Chorus under Hillis’ direction, it is good enough for me!  While many in the profession refer to it as “the bible”, if you are not familiar with it, I have pulled several excerpts from the resource that I hope you might find helpful for you and/or your singers. 
“The Chicago Symphony Chorus never sings a reading of a work: we sing a performance.  There is a vast difference. At best, notation is an inexact blueprint of the composer’s intentions. We try to sing these intentions even beyond the limits of our musical maturity (but not beyond the intelligent use of our individual vocal resources).”
Choral singing demands intense awareness of the music itself, the conductor, the total sound, and each individual’s contribution to the whole.”
“The need is for the vocal care of the best solo singing, wedded to the musical intelligence of the ensemble singer.”
“Be sure you are contributing your best vocalism at all times.  This means:
1. An even register, with no pressing in the lower range and no pushing on top.
2. An even well-controlled vibrato throughout the whole dynamic range.
3. Clarity and consistence of vowels throughout the entire palette of possible vocal colors.
4. In forte singing, never going nearer than 10% of the loudest you can sing.  Do not give in to the temptation to force if you are sitting next to a bigger voice than yours!
5. Keep the piano dynamic alive and intense.
6. Listen to the total sound. Be aware at all times your relationship to it.
Here is a link to the full document, through The American Choral Foundation:
I received permission from Chorus America to reference the document, as they hold the copywrite.
Thank you to Scott Dorsey and Cheryl Frazes-Hill (, Associate Director of the Chicago Symphony Chorus and Director of Choral Activities at Roosevelt University, for consulting on this post.
Lent is over. Now, hand me the chocolate and no one gets hurt!
(An excerpt from the interest session “From Birth to Death:  Vocal Pedagogy for a Lifetime of Singing,” presented by Deborah Mello during the 2014 ACDA Eastern Division Conference)
       Let’s talk about being able to access the singing space with very young singers.  Without using technical terms we can lead our youngest singers to learn how to sing with a naturally lifted soft palate by employing kinesthetic exercises, imagery and visual aids.  I encourage my choristers to yawn as a constant reminder of the “singer’s space”.  Yawning is contagious and is something we can do together in a vocal warm-up sequence.  The choristers are encouraged to yawn with their mouths closed as they focus on the way the back of their throats feel.  Ask your students to describe what they feel when they yawn with their mouths closed.  Some responses from the children are:  “like a huge cave”, “cathedral space”, “like a reverse megaphone” and “laughing through my eyes” among others.  Allowing the choristers an opportunity to feel the space allows them to access it when singing.  Also naming the action helps them to remember.  With my community children’s choir, we call it the yawn space.
       Connecting movement to the yawn space is also very helpful.  Ask your choristers to pretend to be a Ferris wheel, where they take one arm and swing it in a circle over their head, allowing their voice to “follow their arm.  With a partner, sitting or standing, move in a seesaw fashion while singing a song.
       Visual aids are also invaluable for use with young singers.  Some of my favorites are:  a Hoberman Ball (an expanding ball), tennis balls cut in half and decorated as a boy and a girl, and a Sing-A-Ma-Jig (Mattel baby toy) that shows beautiful vowel shapes.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Level the Playing Field: Using Barbershop Harmony to get More Males into Your Choral Program,” presented by Adam Scott during the 2014 ACDA North Central Division Conference)
Wouldn't it be great if the guys recruited each other?
Getting guys to join choir is about scratching their itch.  If the ratio of guys to girls enrolled in band class are almost equal why does it seem so hard to recruit guys?  This session discusses the right types of songs to introduce, when to hold men's choir, rehearsal strategies, tag singing, and getting guys so fired up about music that they do the recruiting for you.  Harmony in the hallways will become the norm and you'll find guys in choir you'd never have expected.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Masters in Miniature: Singing the Great Composers with a Small Choir,” presented by David Rayl and Zebulon M. Highben during the 2014 ACDA Central Division Conference)
       The vast treasure trove of Renaissance music provides a wonderful resource for choirs of all types. Consider a piece like Dowland's lute song "Come again, sweet love doth now invite."  It can be performed unaccompanied, like an English madrigal, but it also works well with the accompaniment of classical guitar. See the following edition:    Alternatively, but less desirable, one could use the harpsichord stop on an electronic keyboard. Treble choirs (for example a 7th or 8th grade female ensemble) can sing just the soprano line with guitar accompaniment. Because these lute songs are strophic, another performance option is the alternation of verses between those sung by an SATB ensemble and those sung by just sopranos. These lute songs have another advantage over the 'typical' madrigal by Morley and his contemporaries--the poetry is much stronger.
       There are other works from the Renaissance that have the same flexibility in terms of performing forces. For example chansons such as Sermisy's "Tant que vivray" can be approached in any of the ways described above.
       The authors strongly urge conductors of choirs of ALL types to explore the possibilities inherent in this vast and still largely untapped repertoire.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Extencec New Works: Sharing Resources and Successes,” presented by David Hodgkins with Alan Harler and Deborah Simpkin King during the 2014 ACDA Eastern Division Conference)
       I am a self-proclaimed Troglodyte. To me an app is something you order before dinner and a tweet is a birdcall. But even I can see the possibilities that are inherent in the internet to share large swaths of concrete, useful information – full scores and recordings – of unpublished extended new works, especially that publishers often find too risky to publish.
       In my 20 plus years with Coro Allegro I have premiered quite a number of wonderful new works that have been embraced by both audiences and performers, only to have the score sit on a shelf because there is no way to share that information in a format that is easily distributed, user friendly, and above all can be displayed in a format that is protected from piracy.
       Until now.
       The session I gave with Alan Harler and Deborah Simpkin King in Baltimore had a new wrinkle: In addition to the typical bibliography about each work, we were able to present the full score with a sound file embedded in the score, so that each work can be simultaneously listened to and viewed on a computer, all with the click of a button, thanks to new technology and the wizardry of John Delorey and his talented minions at WPI. This could revolutionize the way in which conductors research and share resources and successes. In a short time our session will be posted on the ACDA Eastern Division website. I invite you to check it out.
       When was the last time you were truly moved by a musical experience?  This past week, I had the distinct honor of hosting Nick Page for a three day residency with my college students and children’s choir.   Nick is one of those rare individuals who are extremely talented but totally accessible at the same time.  He uses music and humor to cultivate joy and harmony in people.  The culminating event of the residency was a Community Sing where, for an hour and a half, people of different ages, backgrounds and experience levels sang together.  Everyone was asked to make a real connection to each other, through music.   The ensemble feeling that was created made the experience mean so much.
       As I reflect on the residency, I am thinking about my most meaningful choral experiences and they have all involved conductors who cultivated close relationships within the ensemble.   In terms of singing, these ensembles were also the most satisfying.  When our singers feel most comfortable, they probably sing more naturally and freely. There are so many phenomenal musical experiences to be had, but it cannot just be about the repertoire.  While I would like to think my singers remain my priority at all times, I know that sometimes the music takes over.  We never have one without the other, but fostering connections with and among my singers at every rehearsal should be the first priority.
       I read the following last year and it has stuck with me – this was written by a student at Macalaster College:
Music reminds us that in the end, our pursuits to be active, helpful members of society are about people. In our classrooms, we discover wonderful strategies for improving the world, but they will get us nowhere without compassion.   ~Andrea Wilhelmi
April in Paris? Coffee in Paris? How about ANYTHING in Paris! (The company one keeps whilst one is in Paris probably has something to do with enjoying the experience)
(An excerpt from the interest session “The Quest for Quality Choral Literature,” presented by Christopher Kiver during the 2014 ACDA Eastern Division Conference)
       What was the first piece of music you encountered that made you want to pursue music? For me, it was as a fourteen year-old violist playing Shostakovich’s Tenth Symphony. I probably only played 30% of the notes accurately, and knew little about music, but I knew immediately this was something special - haunting melodies, driving rhythms, beautiful orchestral colors, incredible dynamic contrasts, each rehearsal further piquing my interest and excitement as more and more of the score was revealed.
       So much music is available to us through live performance, reading sessions, publisher mailings, and the internet. Repertoire lists abound in choral newsletters, journals, and state adjudication lists, though rarely with objective evaluation of a composition’s quality. The following prompts are intended as a starting point for thinking more objectively when selecting repertoire.
       Is the text rich in meaning, nuance and color? Are the melodies interesting or memorable (not necessarily on first hearing)? Does each section of the choir have melodically interesting lines? Does the composer include enough harmonic variety to surprise the ear? Is there rhythmic variety? Is the accompaniment compelling? Does the piece stand up to detailed analysis? Will the composition engage singers intellectually, musically and emotionally? If performing this work, what other great music are the singers missing out on?
       Quality repertoire exists in all genres and historical periods. If the only first-hand experience of music for our singers is through participation in choirs, don’t all singers deserve to sing the very best music?
(An excerpt from the interest session “It’s Not Just Old Music: Discovering Quality and Engaging Music on CPDL,” presented by Ryan Kelly during the 2014 ACDA Southwestern Division Conference)
It is easy to disregard certain pieces on CPDL because their scorings do not exactly match what one’s choirs typically perform. Think creatively, however, and remember that centuries of performance practices often remind us how composers, conductors, and choirs of the past have often adapted works for their singers’ needs. Here are some performance ideas to consider when browsing through CPDL’s vast holdings of public domain scores:
1)      Do you have a younger choir that performs two- or three-part music? Don’t just look at “official” choral music; consider also the great composers’ duets and trios for your choir.
2)      There is no shame in performing two- or three-part music with large and accomplished ensembles. If it is a beautiful two-part piece, composed by a first-rate composer, why not perform it exquisitely with your advanced ensemble? This can be a great palate-cleanser in the middle of a heavy choral program.
3)      Are you apprehensive about programming a six-part madrigal or motet with your choir? From the Renaissance, all the way through the Classical era, it was common for instruments to double voice parts (colla parte, literally, “with the part”). It was also common in early music for an instrument to play a voice part without any singer performing that part. Therefore, do not shy away from the six- to eight-part madrigals or motets. Invite some instrumentalists to double parts or to play parts singers are not singing—this is very historically authentic and can add beautiful timbres to a choral concert.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Starting a Group,” presented by Deke Sharon during the 2014 Western Division Conference)
       People in "a cappella" [the form of pop ensemble singing] have become too concerned with tuning.
       Perhaps it's the prevalence of pitch correction in recordings and pop music, but groups seem ever-concerned with their pitch, and moreover judge other groups as if tuning is the point.
       People usually do not decide what they like or want with their logical minds. They make them with their hearts, and then they justify them intellectually. That's been proven time and again, and is at the core of everything from political campaigns to grocery store product placement.
       To bring it closer to home, do you remember when Ben Folds said to the Beelzebubs in Season One of The Sing Off: "There were some tuning issues, but I just didn't care!" That's exactly what I'm talking about. A great performance with heart and sincerity will always trump technical prowess.
       Do you know who else doesn't care? You don't care. Do you hate all Motown music? Most likely not. I'll bet there are many songs that make you happy But the vocals are well outside what would be considered "in tune" nowadays. And they're beautiful. And real.
       Moreover, if you're focusing primarily on tuning on stage, you're not performing and you're not communicating. You're manufacturing sound.
(An excerpt from the interest session “Overtone Singing as a Choral Art,” presented by Peggy Dettwiler and Stuart Hinds during the 2014 ACDA Eastern Division Conference)
       Remember that overtones are the very basis of vowels, timbre, resonance, and intonation.  Overtone singing can help us increase our abilities in all these areas of singing by gaining greater control of vocal tract shaping and giving a focus to the effects produced by certain movements.  The awareness gained from overtone singing can be applied to matching vowels, tuning intervals and chords, and extending the color palette of the choral sound (an area in which Peggy is an expert).
       Overtone singing is not essentially different from ‘normal’ singing.  The types of vocal tract shaping used in overtone singing are the same as those used in traditional singing when changing vowels, registers, or timbre. None of the adjustments of the vocal tract used in overtone singing are inconsistent with good "open throat" singing.
       Additional information, in the form of video demo, sound files, and works list is available.
       A recent editorial in the International Journal of Research in Choral Singing (IJRCS), written by Dr. James Daugherty, challenges our profession to question our backgrounds in vocal pedagogy.  As the editor of this publication, Daugherty extends and promotes our field’s scholarship on a host of topics related to the choral arena.  In this particular piece, Daugherty raises several issues I found to be thought provoking and that warrant further discussion.  I am going to focus on just one of them here, but I encourage you to read the original article and to check out the journal (published by ACDA) when you have some free time!
       Daugherty has written extensively on vocal/choral pedagogy and in addition to teaching and conducting, he runs the School of Music Vocology Laboratory at the University of Kansas.  In his editorial, he shares some historical context for the topic of choral conductor preparation as it relates to vocal pedagogy, raising some important points for us to consider.  He writes that, although founded in 1924, it was not until 2009 that the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) required that doctoral students in choral conducting "must have detailed knowledge of vocal technique and pedagogy" (NASM, 2009, p. 142; taken from Daugherty, 2013, p. 1).  For undergraduates, it wasn’t until the 1990s that NASM required students have "sufficient vocal and pedagogical skill to teach effective use of the voice" (NASM, 1993, p. 36; taken from Daugherty, p. 1).  Daugherty raises the point that while the reference is there, NASM does not specify what is considered “sufficient” or “effective”.  Member institutions can determine this for themselves, so wide variants exist and exposure is probably highly dependent on the individual teachers who shape and offer the program.  As we all know, taking private voice lessons where the emphasis is on building an individual voice is not comparable to learning how to manage voices at many different stages of development within the ensemble setting.   The choral conductor has a great responsibility to support healthy vocal technique in the choral setting, and additional training is almost always required to supplement what we are exposed to in college. Many, many conductors seek this information on their own and become very knowledgeable.
       Daugherty says” I know of no choral conductor-teacher who sets out intentionally to hinder the optimal vocal efficiency of singers in ensemble or dispense inaccurate voice information. Yet, clearly, the expectations for our profession as a whole have been less than consistent and far from exacting ones when it comes to vocal pedagogy and voice care” (p. 1).  Additional training and education to supplement collegiate preparation is vitally important.  After all, we are responsible for a lot more than the music we program.  Our singers voices are in our hands and we have a great opportunity to support lifelong vocal health.
Daugherty, J. (2013). Editorial: Voice care training for choral conductors. International Journal of Research in Choral Singing 4(2), Spring 2013.  Published by ACDA.
Link to the table of contents from the Spring 2013 IJRCS, which includes the full text of the article