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Books and materials: Vocal pedagogy books

Date: Fri, 13 Jun 1997 21:45:32 -0400 (EDT)
From: "v. meredith"
To: "Choralist Resource Site (CRS)"
Subject: voice class text compilation

Thanks to the people who sent their suggestions for university voice
class textbooks. The results listed here are in addition to the
resources already listed on the CRS under the category of Vocal Pedagogy
-- a related, but different type of course.

"Foundations in Singing," 6th ed., Christy and Paton

"Clippinger's Class Method of Voice Culture," Clippinger

"Song Anthology One," 4 ed., Anne and William Leyerle

"Adventures in Singing," Kenneth E. Miller

"Freeing the Natural Voice," Linklater


Date: Wed, 12 Jul 1995 14:37:10 EDT
To: choralist@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Vocal pedagogy materials summary

Thanks for the input regarding materials for an undergraduate-
level vocal pedagogy course. Here's a list of the materials you
submitted, along with comments from Choralist subscribers.

by James McKinney
Broadman Press, Nashville Tenn.
Soft Cover, 210 pages.

by William Vennard
Carl Fischer

by Barbara M. Doscher
Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Hard Cover, 222 pages.
"an excellent explanantion of what is going on physically when
one sings."

by Dr. Jeffrey Foote
Wildwood Music
8850 S. Shore, Weidman, MI 48893 517-644-3191

Frauke Hasseman and Jim Jordan
Hinshaw (??)
"There is a book, a video and cards with specific excersises."

Richard Miller

Dudley Ralph Appelman

Kenneth Phillips
1992 New York, Schirmer Books
"This is particularly useful for music education majors... I
refer to it often (I'm a public school teacher and a singer) when
working with both children and adults. (Video tapes and vocalise
cards are also available, but I haven't reviewed them.)"

Meribeth Bunch

Johan Sundberg


Date: Wed, 8 Feb 1995 14:44:27 +0000 (GMT)
From: David P Rossiter
Subject: Information release - Real-time visual displays for the voice

Information release - Real-time visual displays for the voice

One DPhil thesis, nine papers and three miscellaneous other reports
have now been released on the world wide web (www) concerning a three
year project entitled `Real-time visual displays for professional
voice development'. These are available at the following address:

[Ftp access is also available at \pub\users\elec10\voice]

At the site each item is listed with the complete reference, abstract and
a link to a postscipt version of the item. The size of the files are also
quoted. There are hypertext html versions of the DPhil thesis and some
reports/papers. The items presented on the site are listed below.
The DPhil thesis abstract is listed here to provide an indication
of the type of information presented in the thesis and at the site in

-------- The DPhil thesis --------
D ROSSITER, 'Real-time visual displays for voice tuition', DPhil thesis,
January 1995

The human voice is used regularly in day-to-day activity, particularly by
teachers, politicians and singers. This can place a level of strain on their
vocal mechanism. To counter this, professional voice users may undergo
some form of vocal tuition. However, there is a prevalence of subjective,
sometimes ambiguous tuition techniques. Vocal damage can therefore
occur in spite of, or partially because of, the tuition techniques that are
supposed to help the subject.

It is hypothesised that a computer system which can a) objectively measure
a large set of parameters relating to vocal performance, b) appropriately
translate these parameters to a smaller set of easily interpreted measures,
and c) dynamically display this information in an appropriate graphical
form may be able to provide a measure of progress to complement
instructive techniques during vocal tuition.

A highly flexible, easy-to-use tool for the analysis and visualization of
voice source and acoustic signals has been developed called ALBERT
(Acoustic and Laryngeal Biofeedback Enhancement in Real-Time). The
system can be used to provide real-time feedback on the state of a number
of voice parameters. The visualization of these parameters is highly
configurable, and includes 1D, 2D and 3D arrangements with optional
colour mapping. ALBERT is novel in its ability to display many popular
laryngeal and acoustic parameters in many informative graphical
configurations. The system can be used in real-time to function as a tool
for use by a voice tutor.

To test the hypothesis, three studies are presented of vocally developing
male and female subjects as follows: i) a six week course of vocal
expression, ii) a group of actors over an eight month period, and iii) a
group of singers over a time span of 2.7 years. Two voice parameters in
particular have been identified as indicative of vocal performance: the
closed quotient of the vocal folds (CQ) and the spectral amplitude in the
frequency band within which the phenomenon of the `singer's formant' is
known to occur relative to the spectral amplitude of the complete acoustic
output (Ratio). ALBERT has been used as a tool to provide real-time
visual feedback of these parameters in the context of singing tuition.
Results suggest that ALBERT is a tool with considerable potential for use
in a voice tuition process.

[Postscript version and hypertext html version available]

-------- A list of the published papers held at the site --------
D ROSSITER & D M HOWARD, 'Animation of larynx movement
derived from an electrolaryngograph signal', Voice (journal of the British
Voice Association), vol. 3, pp. 86-91, 1994

D ROSSITER & D M HOWARD, 'ALBERT : a system for interactive
analysis and display of voice source and acoustic parameters', Proceedings
of the Institute of Acoustics: Speech and Hearing Conference, vol. 16, no.
5, pp. 301-308, 1994

[Postscript version and hypertext html version available]

D M HOWARD & D ROSSITER, 'Real-time visual displays for use in
singing training: An overview', Proceedings of the Stockholm Music
Acoustics Conference, July 28-August 1, pp. 191-196, 1993

D ROSSITER, D M HOWARD & M DOWNES, 'A real-time LPC based
vocal tract area display for voice development', Journal of Voice, vol. 8,
no. 4, pp. 314-319, 1994

D ROSSITER & D M HOWARD, 'Voice source and acoustic output
qualities for singing synthesis'. Proceedings of the International Computer
Music Conference, pp. 483-484, 1994

D ROSSITER & D M HOWARD, 'The application of multimedia and
visualization techniques to the enhancement of voice analysis and
development', Proceedings of the 12th Eurographics UK conference, pp.
5-17, 1994

visual displays for singing development', Proceedings of the 11th
Eurographics UK conference, pp. 63-72, 1993

D ROSSITER & D M HOWARD, 'Cyberspace visualization of vocal
development data', Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, vol. 14, Part
6, pp. 241-248, 1992

D M HOWARD & D ROSSITER, 'Results from a pilot longitudinal study
of electrolaryngographically derived closed quotient for adult male singers
in training', Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, vol. 14, Part 6, pp.
529-536, 1992

---------- Other reports available ----------
M DOWNES, Real-time determination of vocal tract articulation for vocal
training using linear predictive coding. Unpublished MSc report, Music
Technology Masters degree, York University, Sept 1992

ALBERT (Acoustic and Laryngeal Biofeedback Enhancement in
Real-Time) software manual
[Postscript and hypertext html versions available]

CLARK, M.J.O. (1992) Acoustics of the singing voice. Unpublished final
year project submitted as partial requirement for the degree of Physics,
University of Edinburgh.

----- Other information available ----------
- A list of audio related software available for Silicon Graphics machines

- Source code and a binary executable for a real time wide band spectrogram
for Silicon Graphics machines

- a list of links to various other music/singing/audio-related sites on
the www

The research associate for this project was Dr David Rossiter
( The principal investigator for the project was
Dr David Howard ( The work was conducted at the
Department of Electronics, University of York, England.

Date: Tue, 28 Jan 1997 12:54:07 -0800 (PST)
From: (Fabiana Katz-Eser)
To: choralist@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Re: Breathing Exercises

>Does anyone have any ideas on how to get a choir to learn proper breathing
>techniques? I'm trying to compile a list for my secondary teaching
>methods class. I'll post the responses when they come in. Thanks in

If you have the opportunity, read this book. It will teach you amazing
things about the human apparatus and HOW to produce a beautiful, relaxed
tone, supported, AND it will teach you to breath ... all without EVER
mentioning a thing about singing (well, maybe once or twice).

ISBN 0-89676-071-5

Date: Mon, 13 Oct 1997 12:48:38 -0500
From: Patricia Romza
Subject: compilation: voice techniques texts

Here is the compilation of responses I received to requests for voice
techniques books specifically on child and adolescent voices. I found
that they are all things I've been considering, so it's good to know
I'm on the right track. I especially appreciate responses from people
"in the trenches" who have to use these materials daily as a basis for
their teaching. My local elementary and middle school people recommended
both the Phillips and the Barham/Nelson texts.

Thank you to everyone who responded.
Kenneth Phillips, "Teaching Kids to Sing," Schirmer Books, 1992.

I have been teaching a one-semester course for three years now, and I use
"Teaching Kids to Sing" by Kenneth Phillips, published by Schirmer Books.
I recommend this book very highly as a method of vocal instruction for
children and adolescents. The first part of the book gives basics of vocal
technique, including different theories of voice change in boys and how to
handle it, and then gives a series of 90 different exercises in different
categories (Respiration, Phonation, Resonant Tone Production, Diction and
Expression) which can be used in a variety of ways by elementary and
secondary teachers. I agree with what he says vocally, and he has made the
material easy to teach with these exercises.

There is a set of six videos to accompany the text, wherein he demonstrates
each of the ninety exercises. There is also a loose-leaf binder which
contains just the exercise on 6x4 cards for use by classroom teachers.

Dick Householder
Prof. Richard Householder
Director of Choral Activities
School of Music Phone: (519) 253-3000, ext. 2797
University of Windsor Fax: (519) 971-3614
Windsor, Ontario, Canada N9B 3P4 e-mail:

The best resource I have found for the type of class you are
teaching is:
Teaching Kids to Sing by Kenneth H Phillips, Schirmer Books, 1992. It covers
everything from early childhood to a chapter (albeit a short one) on the adult
voice. My students remark on its being one of a few texts they will keep for
their own professional libraries. I think that is recommendation enough!
Ruth Wiwchar

I highly recommend Teching Kids To Sing by Kenneth Philips An excellent
book on the voice from Youth through High School singer
Carolyn Lokken
Grand Island Senior High School

The finest book I have seen to date on the unchanged child voice is
Kenneth Phillips' "Teaching Kids To Sing". I know it sounds like a
goofy title, but is a very scholarly work. I have found it an excellent
resource for my general music classes (K - 6) as well as for my treble
Best wishes,
Anne Chelekis

You ought to consider "Teaching Kids to Sing" published by Schirmer
books. I purchased it recently, and it really fills a void in the vocal
pedagogy literature. I also looked through Frauke Haasemen's Voice
Building for Choirs (Hinshaw I believe)---many of those activities would
really work for young singers. They are not so self-conscious.
John Cooksey, "Working With the Adolescent Voice," Concordia.

Cooksey is the authority on which I leaned. You should definitely look at
his book, "Working with the Adolescent Voice."
Terry Barham (also see Terry's additional comments below)

I am not teaching a methods class, but "from the field" working in a K-8
program, I use Cooksey constantly as a point of reference, and consider his
book very valuable, and recommend it highly.
Tom Remenschneider

Terry Barham and Darolyne Nelson, "The Boy's Changing Voice--New Solutions for Today's Choral Teachers," Warner Bros/CPP-Belwin, 1991.

Darolyne Nelson and I used Cooksey's research as a foundation but
changed the number of boy's voice categories from 6 (Cooksey) to 4,
based on our experiences with adolescent boy singers. Given the
responses (and sales) from choral teachers around the country, our
book, The Boy's Changing Voice--New Solutions for Today's Choral
Teachers, Warner Bros/CPP-Belwin, 1991, has been very well received.
It's like a manual rather than a more lengthy discussion of every possible
anomaly in the boy's voice. It's intended to be practical. An annotated
list of 192 pieces of recommended literature is included along with
suggestions for the development of healthy singing. I know that a
number of college and university music ed. teachers use our book in their
choral techniques courses.

Terry Barham, Ph.D.
Director of Choral Activities
Emporia State University
Emporia, KS 68601

Christine Jordanoff and Robert Page, "Choral Triad Video Workshop," distributed by MENC.

Patricia's note: I don't know these videos, but having done my first two degrees at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh and knowing the work of Dr. Jordanoff and Mr. Page, I find her description exciting:

It sounds as if you have quite a tall order for one semester. I would like to encourage you to look at the Choral Triad Video Workshop, which Robert Page and I did a few years ago. Itshows that singing is singing, no matter what the age, and offers demonstrations of children, middle schoo, high school and adult singersall using the same fundamental approaches to vocal production and technique. In addition to 3 public school groups, demonstrations from the Children's Festival Chorus, the Junior Mendelssohn Choir, and the Mendelssohn Choir of Pittsburgh illustrate 3 basic aspects of singing.

Christine Jordanoff
Chair, Music Education,
Duquesne University
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
No title given, but the Voice Care Network's textbook was recommended twice. I had a student attend their workshop two summers ago and come back enlightened and energized and full of good ideas, so I'll be checking it out.

I would highly suggest getting the new textbook used by the Voice Care
Network which is out of St. John's University in Minnesota. There is
a wealth of knowledge in this text. It is rather expensive and
perhaps more thorough than you would want for your students to
purchase. I hope this helps.

Dan Vukmirovich
Coldwater Community Schools

Absolutely check out the VoiceCare Network (Axel Theimer and Leon Thurman).
They often have a full page ad in the Choral Journal. It is life changing
and will give you more information than you thought could be had.
Dan Krunnfusz
Artistic Director
Madison (WI) Boychoir

Not a text but a tape:
Roland Wyatt, "Guideposts to Singing."

It is not a book, but a cassette. Side one is between 20 and 30 minutes
of corrective vocalization and side two is a discussion demonstration of
singing methodology, based on the work of Oren Brown, Emil Froeschels,
and other experts in vocal pathology and health.

I got my copy of the complete set of four tapes from the "Primarily A
Cappella" catalog two years ago. It cost $60 for the set of four tapes
or $20 each.

Roland Wyatt is and has been for 12 years the vocal coach of the
Manhattan Transfer. He is also the coach for Neil Shicoff, Ariel Bybee
and others at the Metropolitan Opera. Pop singers including Barbara
Mandrell and Susan Anton are his students as well.

The members of the Manhattan Transfer use his warmup tape (i.e., side
one) before every show. They were the ones who convinced him to make the
tape available publicly. There is a tape for each of the voice parts,
SATB, and they are different (not just in different keys). Each tape
features one of the Transfer -- Cheryl Bentyne is on the soprano tape,
Janis Segal on the alto, Alan Paul on the tenor, and Tim Hauser on the
bass tapes -- and the side progresses through disarmingly simple vocal
exercises. I can tell you from first hand experience, which has been
repeated over and over by friends, colleagues, and members of my
Chautauqua Chamber Singers, that you just don't believe that you are
doing anything, and then suddenly the voice begins to fall into place.
It happens every time I use it.

Now the embarrassing part: I contacted Roland Wyatt to ask if the tapes
could be purchased anywhere else besides "Primarily A Cappella." And now
I am a dealer! (I am also discounting the usual price by 25% on
individual tapes.) You can check out the Primarily A Cappella catalog

(Roland's tape is the last thing on the list, under "Educational" --
selling for $19.95 plus s&h)

I don't yet have a web site or anything like that -- I just have the

If you are interested, Music-Works here in Jamestown New York stocks the
tapes at $15 each plus $1.25 for postage. We can not take credit cards,
just checks.

Lee S. Spear, D.M.A.
333 Crossman St
Jamestown, NY 14701

Date: Fri, 11 Jul 1997 12:11:13 -0500 (CDT)
Subject: Responses to question about young voices

On Tuesday, July 8 I asked the following question:

Can anyone point me to some research materials dealing with vocal development
of the young voice? Books, articles, Web-sites, discussions, anything will be
helpful. Thank you.

Many of you asked me to post the responses. Here they are.

Please consult the Choral Triad Video Workshop, available through MENC
Resources. There are 6 instructional videos and a workbook, using
examples from school, community and semi-professional groups.

Southern Music publishes a little gem called, The Changing Voice, which
is particularly helpful for middle school. It is at the school now and
I can't remember the author.

The best thing with young voices is to observe and listen. Finding an
experienced director with a record of successful programs in any type of
setting would be helpful. Spending some time teaching under this person's
guidance and observation would also be very valuable.

Having split-gender classes in the middle school ages is a real plus. You
can deal with things so comfortably and no one is self-conscious. This
should not be a problem in any progressive, supportive community.

Though nothing will ever make quite as big a difference for you as 2-3 years
of hands-on, in the trenches work, try getting your hands on any of the
following books:

just remember where they've been and where they're going and helped them ant
the best for themselves and the group!

Teaching Kids to Sing - Kenneth Phillips
Lifeline for Children's Choir Directors - Jean Ashworth Bartle
Teaching the Elementary School Chorus - Linda Swears

Check out John Cooksey's work--it's the best there is. I believe the title is
The Adolescent Changing Voice. You might also look at the book I
co-wrote with Darolyne Nelson, The Boy's Changing Voice--New
Solutions for Today's Choral Teacher, CPP-Belwin/Warner Bros (1991).

Search a university library for articles by Cooksey, Gackles, and Bonnie Blu
Williams. These 3 researchers have provided some very useful information.
Also, I think Jean Ashworth Bartle's book, Lifeline for Children's Choir
Directors is very good, but not research based.

You can contact the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Professor A. Baressi did
research and videos several years ago and they have
promoted them. Best Wishes.

I have discovered one book which deals with the developement of head voice,
the mechanisms and techniques of correct singing and speaking. It's called
How to Sing and Speak Properly
by Alan Greene
the edition I have is published by Chappell and Co., Inc.

Doreen Rao has written an excellent book entitled, WE WILL SING! This book
describes ways of developing a young child's voice through vocal artistry in
a choral situation. I am a firm believer that the child's voice should be
developed in a group setting, i.e. music class or choir. Power is not
something to be expected from a young voice, and students who sing with a
large sound tend to have poor vocal habits learned already.
on January 6, 2005 10:00pm
Doreen Rao's book "We Will Sing" is no longer in publication. I hear the set is switching to Hal Leonard in the near future.
on November 28, 2006 10:00pm
Check out THE VOICECARE NETWORK's newly remodeled website:

The NETWORK's COURSE BOOK--anyone can purchase it--ordering link on website:

[has been adopted as text for vocal pedagogy, choral methods, music education methods courses throughout the U.S. and in Australia and United Kingdom]

Several thousand VoiceCare Network members live in all 50 U.S. states and 15 other countries

Evidence-based summer courses for choral conductors covering just about everything on healthy and efficient singing and speaking, e.g.,

1. whole-body freedom and "naturalness" for conductors, teachers, and singers (totally new)
2. effects of conductor gestures and body movements on voices, choral sound, and voice health
3. effects of conductor rehearsal language on motivation (retention), voices, even self-identity
4. how voices actually function (many "mysteries" and "mythologies" resolved)
5. how to use vocal/musical "pathfinders" for teaching skills (not tricks & gimmicks)
6. how to teach fundamental voice skills in rehearsals through gestures, pathfinders, literature
7. hearing differences between Efficient vocal/choral sounds and INefficient vocal/choral sounds
8. efficient use of voice for talking/teaching; conductor/teacher voice health & effectiveness
9. effects on voice of extensive/vigorous voice use, voice disorders/diseases, medications
10. evidence-based preventive and general voice health practices
11. helping children's voices in rehearsals and classrooms
12. helping adolescent male and female changing voices in rehearsals (Cooksey and Gackle)