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ChoralNet: How to Cite Internet resources

Date: Sun, 17 Dec 1995 07:09:01 -0700 (MST)
From: "James D. Feiszli"
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU (ChoralAcademe)
Subject: citations from Internet sources

For some as yet unexplained reason, Patrick O'Shea is having
difficulty posting this to the list (a quirk of the list
software, not his fault), so I am posting it for him.
--------------------------

A graduate student of mine recently brought an interesting problem to my
attention: If one finds useful information on the Internet (World Wide
Web, Gopher, or FTP), and wishes to incorporate that information in a
scholarly paper. This raises the difficult issue of citation.

How does one cite an internet resource? There are many which are useful.
For example, New Albion Records has an extensive World Wide Web site with
artist biographies and information (including many 20th-century composers).
The articles do not credit a single author, but provide many useful
biographical details.

Since the point of citation is to allow the reader to consult the sources
cited directly, I would think that in the example above, a scholarly
citation of a Web site must include the URL somewhere. The real question
is one of format. How should the actual citation look, and what other
information should be provided? Should one include the date that the
information was accessed? Many sites are continually upgraded and changed.

This is just one of many instances where scholarship has not kept pace with
technology. However, if we are to make appropriate use of the Internet in
scholarly contexts, the question of citation format must be approached.
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Mon, 18 Dec 1995 10:30:26 +0000
From: benk@dordt.edu
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Re: citations from Internet sources

>Since the point of citation is to allow the reader to consult the sources
>cited directly, I would think that in the example above, a scholarly
>citation of a Web site must include the URL somewhere. The real question
>is one of format. How should the actual citation look, and what other
>information should be provided? Should one include the date that the
>information was accessed? Many sites are continually upgraded and changed.

Our Media Services director at the college has thoughtfully passed these MLA
guidelines on to us earlier in the year.

Documenting "the Web": MLA Style
if no specified printed source:
Name of author (if given)
Title of the text (underlined)
Place of publication (if given)
Name of publisher (if given)
Year of publication (if given)
Publication medium (ie, online)
Name of computer network (ie, internet)
Date of access
Electronic address preceded with the word "Available:"

Example:
Unabomber. _Industrial Society and Its Future_. Online. Internet. 6 Oct 1995.
Available: http://www.hotwired.com/special/unabom/introduction.html.

if a printed source IS specified:
Name of author (if given)
Title of the article or document (in quotation marks)
Title of the journal or source (underlined)
Volume number, issue number, or identifying number (if given)
Year or date of publication (in parenthesis) or "n.d." for 'no date'
Number of pages or "n. pag." for 'no pagination'
Publication medium (ie, online)
Name of computer network (ie, internet)
Date of access
Electronic address preceded with the word "Available:"

Example:
Holly, Dan. "Black Men Combine Politics, 'Cleansinf of the Spirit' at March,"
_Detroit Journal_ (17 October 1995): n. pag. Online. Internet. 17 Oct. 1995.
Available: http://www.rust.net/workers/news/4march17.htm.
------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Mon, 18 Dec 1995 11:44:56 -0800
From: lauren39@wavenet.com (Dale Jergenson)
To: poshea@sfasu.edu
Cc: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Re: citations from Internet sources

>>In response to Patrick O'Shea's discussion of citing internet sources,
>>the 4th ed. of the AMA Publication Manual, refers to Li and Crane's
>>(1993) _Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information_.
>>This is just after the editors state ". . . a standard [has] not yet
>>emerged for referencing on-line information." The AMA Manual goes on to
>>state that "Electronic correspondence, such as E-mail messages and
>>conversations via bulletin boards and electronic discussion groups
>>[choralist], is cited as personal communications in the text."
>
>Yes, but WWW items (unlike e-mail) are NOT personal communications. As
>such, they should be cited differently than a personal interview or letter.
>Perhaps the following example might serve as an acceptable format:
>
>"Lukas Foss." New Albion Records WWW Site, 10 December 1995, 13:45 GMT
> (http://www.newalbion.com/artists/fossl.html).
>
>Electronic resources that provide references to printed sources should
>easily produce bibiographical citations in the normal format (as if the
>researcher had the printed source instead of the electronic source).
>However, sources that exist only in electronic form (or for which a printed
>version cannot be easily located) might follow the above format. The time
>citation might be overkill, but then again some WWW resources are
>time-sensitive. For example, if one wished to cite weather forecasts which
>are widely distributed on the WWW, a time citation would be appropriate.
>In these cases, I would suggest using the international standard of GMT.
>
------------

To add just a note. The concept of time and date stamping is important as
information on electronic formats is changed regularly, as well as the
possibility of alterations to the information taking place without the
knowledge of the author. We're not dealing with metal plates anymore - we
might as well get used to it. I presume that it will take us some time
before this gets sorted out in any fashion acceptable to the academic
community. I suspect that the most important work, aside from citations,
will be done by the copyright office. Unfortunately, they are nortoriously
slow in their response to what many of us consider "urgent needs" (although
- it's really not the fault of the office, per se, as congressional
members/committees must do their work first, and we know what lies in their
collective little hearts these days).

I am personally involved with the struggle of copyright infringement, et
al, which relies heavily on date stamping, since my publishing company,
Laurendale Associates, is entering a new phase of music distribution by
selling LDM (Laurendale Duplication Masters) with a license(s) for
duplication (you can obviously see the connection to "electronic delivery
systems"). We will have masters floating around out there, with moral
integrity as the means by which we attempt to control abuse, much like the
position most software producers have adopted.

I would go as far as to time and date stamp private e-mail communications
that are being cited, as well (the same way we cite personal letters).
Since we have an opportunity to "clean up" the area of citations, let's at
least start by over-doing it a bit, then let it settle down to a scholarly
format, yet to be devised (probably to be determined by practice, as much
as anything).
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Sun, 17 Dec 1995 14:36:11 -0600
From: poshea@sfasu.edu (Patrick M. O'Shea)
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Re: citations from Internet sources

>In response to Patrick O'Shea's discussion of citing internet sources,
>the 4th ed. of the AMA Publication Manual, refers to Li and Crane's
>(1993) _Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information_.
>This is just after the editors state ". . . a standard [has] not yet
>emerged for referencing on-line information." The AMA Manual goes on to
>state that "Electronic correspondence, such as E-mail messages and
>conversations via bulletin boards and electronic discussion groups
>[choralist], is cited as personal communications in the text."

Yes, but WWW items (unlike e-mail) are NOT personal communications. As
such, they should be cited differently than a personal interview or letter.
Perhaps the following example might serve as an acceptable format:

"Lukas Foss." New Albion Records WWW Site, 10 December 1995, 13:45 GMT
(http://www.newalbion.com/artists/fossl.html).

Electronic resources that provide references to printed sources should
easily produce bibiographical citations in the normal format (as if the
researcher had the printed source instead of the electronic source).
However, sources that exist only in electronic form (or for which a printed
version cannot be easily located) might follow the above format. The time
citation might be overkill, but then again some WWW resources are
time-sensitive. For example, if one wished to cite weather forecasts which
are widely distributed on the WWW, a time citation would be appropriate.
In these cases, I would suggest using the international standard of GMT.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Tue, 26 Dec 1995 08:53:02 -0700 (MST)
From: "James D. Feiszli"
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU (ChoralAcademe)
Subject: citations fromn Internet sources

I finally got access to that online site on citations.
Here is the URL:

http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html
-----------------------------------------------------------------

Date: Tue, 26 Dec 1995 22:10:53 -0500
From: John.Howell@vt.edu (John Howell)
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: Re: citations fromn Internet sources

The purpose of a citation is to identify and allow the reader to consult
the original. One of the trickiest questions in the electronic world is
defining what the word "original" means! (A colleague sat on the
university copyright committee for years, and said that they were going
crazy over the question of computer programs which constantly change and
might be written in part using university resources and in part using
private resources.)

I haven't used the Internet much for research, so I can't suggest an
answer, but the proper line of questioning should be, "what do I need to
list in order to help the reader find this material?" Is the name of the
source maintainer necessary to do this? Is it necessary in some cases? Or
is the date and source name sufficient? I'm not sure there's an analogy to
print sources, because once something is printed it is in fixed form (until
a new edition is prepared). On the Internet, NOTHING is ever in fixed
form. (Which also seems to affect the question of copyright, come to think
of it.)
-----------------------------------------------------------

From: Feiszli, Jim
To: academe
Subject: FW: Citing WWW sources
Date: Friday, February 09, 1996 8:17

Old topic, but this just came across my screen from our campus librarian.

Jim Feiszli
----------
From: Andersen, Patricia M.
To: Faculty with MSMAIL at SDSMT
Subject: Citing WWW sources
Date: Thursday, February 08, 1996 8:21

Student's are finding more and more information through the Internet
and encountering the difficulty of how to cite that information for
papers. Two of the most popular organizations that set standards for
citations have developed web pages on their standards. I hope you
can find the information useful in your classes.

Patty Andersen
----------


Web Extension to APA style
http://www.nyu.edu/pages/psychology/WEAPAS
APA Publication Manual Crib Sheet
http://www.gasou.edu/psychweb/tipsheet/apacrib.htm
MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Resources
http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html

There also was a relevant article in The Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan.
12, 1996 Information Technology section "Cyberspace Citations" by Lisa
Guernsey.
-----------------------------------------------------------

Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 22:30:08 -0500
From: NLGilbert@aol.com
To: choralacademe@lists.Colorado.EDU
Subject: More web pages about citing internet sources

Jim Feiszli's post forwarded from his university librarian reminds me to
forward this from the stumpers-list. Fred Rasp (frasp@halcyon.com) prepared
it for the BESTWEB maillist. You're welcome to forward it further.

Nina Gilbert
NLGilbert@aol.com

- - - - - - - - - -

Li & Crane
http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/estyles.html
http://www.uvm.edu/~xli.reference/mla.html
Bibliographic Formats for Citing Electronic Publications
Xia Li & Nancy Crane have a web page at the U. of Vermont with brief examples
from the new edition of xElectronic Stylex - includes web

Xia Li and Nancy Crane have a book "Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing
Electronic Information", new edition due in Jan 1996 from Meckler Publishing.

WEAPAS
http://www.nyu.edu/pages/psychology/WEAPAS
Web Extension to American Psychological Association Style (WEAPAS)
official APA extension specifically covering web

Walker
http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html
http://www.taft.cc.ca.us/www/tc/tceng/mla.html
http://www.chs.chico.k12.ca.us/libr/webres/walker.html
MLA-Style Citations of Electronic Sources
Janice Walker includes web examples

Wainwright
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/maw13/citation.html
Citation style for internet sources
Mark Wainwright modifies Walker includes web examples

Becklehimer
http://www.nrlssc.navy.mil/meta/bibliography.html
How do you cite URLs in a bibliography?
Jeff Becklehimer gives a web example

Georgia
http://www.gasou.edu/psychweb/tipsheet/apacrib.htm
APA Publication Manual Crib Sheet
Georgia Southern University gives web examples

Vassar
http://guide.vassar.edu/library/Quick-Guides/electcit.html
Citing Electronic Information - Style Sheet
Vassar College Library gives web example

Emory
http://www.cc.emory.edu/WHSCL/citation.formats.html
A Field Guide to Sources On, About, and On the Internet - citation formats
Emory University bibliography of 19 citations, list itself shows web format
Links to Li & Crane, Walker, Wainwright, Becklehimer, Georgia, Page, Wagner,
HERN95

Crouse
http://www.people.memphis.edu/~crousem/elcite.txt
Citing electronic information in history papers
Maurice Crouse gives several web examples

Page
http://www.hivolda.no/asf/kkf/citation.html
http://www.nmmc.com/libweb/employee/citguide.htm
http://coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/QLTY/OnlineRefs.html
A Brief Citation Guide for Internet Sources in History and the Humanities
Melvin E. Page gives a web example

HERN95
http://kalama.doe.hawaii.edu/hern95/rt007/
Cybercitations in Hawaii's Schools
Educational study team shows a web example

Brown
http://neal.ctstateu.edu/history/cite.html
Citing Computer Documents
Haines Brown gives many examples of citing URLs in various styles, no
specific instances of WWW

Wagner
http://www.wilpaterson.edu/wpcpages/library/citing.htm
Guide for Citing Electronic Information
K. Wagner digests Li & Crane, gives web examples

Lousiana
http://www.lacollege.edu/depart/EJL/electronic.html
Guides to Electronic Citation
Louisiana College links to 5 sources including Walker, Brown, & Becklehimer.
Nicely designed page.

Sackman
http://www.helsinki.fi/valttdk/lists/inet-news/0241.html
Internet Citation Guides Available Online
Gleason Sackman provides links to 5 citation guides including Walker,
Wainwright & Becklehimer


Suggestions from the LINGUIST Listserv (February 1995)
http://lamp.cs.utas.edu.au/citation.txt

APA and MLA Citation Styles
http://www.utexas.edu/depts/uwc/.html/citation.html

/////////////////////////////////////////

From: owner-aahesgit
To: American Association for Higher Education
Subject: AAHESGIT: Internet Citations & Copyrights
Date: Friday, February 23, 1996 5:20PM

>>Citation format: There are two sites on WWW that present formats
>> for citations in electronic forums, etc. You might investigate
>> either of the following
>>
>> http://WWW.UVM.EDU/~XLI/REFERENCE/ESTYLES.HTML
>> or
>> http://WWW.CAS.USF.EDU/ENGLISH/WALKER/MLA.HTML
>>
>>Copyright: If you wrote it, you are the rightsholder. If you
>> are willing for others to use the piece, with or
>> without restrictions, you can so state in a sidebar
>> or note and those conditions need to be met. Here's
>> a sample of one
>>
>> Copies of this article may be made and distributed
>> in electronic or print for non-profit educational
>> purposes, provided appropriate citation is included.
>> For any other purposes you must contact the author
>> for permission to use the piece in whole or in
>> part.
>>
************************************************************************
* Frank Connolly The American University *
* FRANK@American.EDU 125 Clark Hall *
* phone: (202) 885-3164 Washington, D.C 20016 *
* fax: (202) 885-1479 *
************************************************************************
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
Steven W. Gilbert, Director, Technology Projects
American Association for Higher Education (AAHE)
202/293-6440 X 54 FAX: 202/293-0073
GILBERT@CLARK.NET
http://www.ido.gmu.edu/aahe/Welcome.html


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