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The evolution of the six original choral schools in America in the Early 20th Century

I am doing some research on the topic "The evolution of the six original choral schools in America in the Early 20th Century". Does anyone have any idea who the six are? I would appreciate some answers. Thanks!
Angelica Garcia
Replies (13): Threaded | Chronological
on March 23, 2014 4:39pm
I wish I knew for sure.  There are probably many who will see your  post and respond much more astutely than I.
But I do recall a professor possibly describing Lowell Mason (New England area) as one.  F. Melius Christiansen (not sure if that is the son, or the father... ?)  might be.  Another worth searching, though maybe not the official list,  is George L. White of Fisk University.  (It's a great story, anyway.)
Converse College in Spartanburg [a conventional women's college with a School of Music] was begun in 1889 - not sure if it is considered an official choral school, but there has always been a very active music education community there, and many great musicians tour  and perform through there and from there.
How old/established is Westminster Choir College?
Best wishes on a fascinating topic!
on March 23, 2014 6:22pm
Crane School of Music (SUNY-Potsdam), originally the Crane Institute of Music, was founded in 1886...
New England Conservatory of Music in Boston was founded in 1867, and claims to be the oldest independent school of music in the US...
Brooklyn Academy of Music in NYC was founded in 1861...
Any other ideas?
on March 23, 2014 11:18pm
My first guess is that it's intended as a reference to Howard Swan's chapter "The Development of a Choral Instrument" from Decker & Hurford's _Choral Conducting Symposium_, which identifies six schools of thought on the development of choral tone. The six schools identified by Swan are based respectively on the work of John Finley Williamson; William J Finn; F Melius Christiansen; Fred Waring; Joseph J Klein, Douglas Stanley & John C Wilcox; and Robert Shaw.
Applauded by an audience of 3
on March 24, 2014 2:34am
That was the first thing that came to my mind as well
on March 24, 2014 6:15am
Howard Swan's chapter in Choral Symposium gives a wonderful  description of the six schools of "thought".
Edwin Foster
NJ Conservatory
Mountain Lakes, NJ 07046
on March 24, 2014 8:27am
the above mentioned Choral Conducting Symposium is the source I recommend.
on March 24, 2014 9:17am
Westminster choir college begain in 1926 in Dayton Ohio, moved New York for a while, then settled in Princeton.
on March 25, 2014 7:16am
The above mentioned "Choral Conducting: A Symposium" is indeed the source of the 6 schools.  Don't waste your money on the book though, very very little of value in it.  I spent $2 on it recently at a thrift store and would rather have had a cup of coffee.
on March 25, 2014 7:19pm
So... it is clear then, that this refers to "schools of thought", rather than actual buildings/institutions?  I realize that some "schools of thought" actually establish buildings..?  I am interested to know, Angelica, whether you choose this topic or was it assigned to you?   Was the question clear as to this?
on March 26, 2014 6:39am
Thank you for your suggestions, input, feedback...the topic is assigned to me to research on. I will try to find a library here in NYC. Where I can borrow the book. 
on March 27, 2014 4:08pm
Several libraries in NYC have this book.  Go here,, then enter your zip code where it says "Enter your location." 
Or, you can ask your library to get it for you via interlibrary loan.
on March 28, 2014 4:18am
Are there other books and sources I can use for my research? I do appreciate all the suggestions already posted.
on March 28, 2014 10:31am
These books may be helpful in your endeavor.
"Fred Waring and the Pennsylvanians" by Virginia Waring, foreword by Robert Shaw, University of Illinois Press,
 ISBN 0-252-02295-5. Very detailed history of the Pennsylvanians.
"Dear People...Robert Shaw" A Biography by Joseph A. Mussulman, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-18457-6.
   Contains a good bit of information on the formation of both the Waring Glee Club and Collegiate Choral as well as extensive information on the beginnings of the Robert Shaw Chorale.
"The Robert Shaw Reader" edited by Robert Block, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10454-5.
  More a reference to aid conductors in addressing the details of diction, style, etc. in preparing a score for performance.
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